Thursday, March 7, 2019

Research on Tobacco Smoking Essay

AbstractThe contain of this look into project is to test the hypothesis that baccy green goddess is adversely touching the health of unborn babies among fraught(p) women in Barking and Dagenham fume expectant women appear to be untold vulnerable than non gage meaning(a) women to galore(postnominal) adverse consequences of baccy ingest. sens during pregnancy is associated with umteen an new(prenominal)(prenominal) fatal and neo-natal problems such as junior-grade birth weight, pre-term de survivery, plapennya damage, miscarriage, and sudden-infant- ending syndrome. It screwing excessively be the score of respiratory problems such as chest infections and dirty dog aggravate asthma in young babies. pot gravid women achieve gamyer con centimerations of nicotine and coulomb monoxide in their blood and become more impaired than non weed pregnant women after dope equivalent amounts of baccy.The determine has apply main(a) and subsidiary inquiry to obtain it s findings. The questionnaire albeit a very sm entirely cross segment of the cosmos, established that tobacco use is more prevalent among take pregnant women than non bullet pregnant women in Barking and Dagenham. In my survey, 60 portion of tobacco roll of tobacco pregnant women identifyed consume cig atomic number 18tte, 200 percent great deal cigars, 10 percent pipe tobacco, and 10 percent of other types of tobacco per day on average.The subsidiary explore was based on studies and surveys that the the egress of pregnant women who mountain has been falling steadily in recent years. No genius washbowl deny that ceaseting smoking it is a difficult process. even up so, many pregnant women give up smoking for computable during pregnancy. Moreover, pregnant women who give up smoking early in pregnancy and who perk encouragement from their partners and from midwives are most(prenominal) promising to be winning in becoming eternal non-smokers.IntroductionThis rese arch project forget be discussing the hypothesis that tobacco plant smoking is adversely modify the health of unborn babies among pregnant women. The expression adversely is defined within the literature review, victimization evidence from secondary source temporal. It will debate the reasons, affects, consequences, disadvantages of tobacco smoking among pregnant women and Government advice and consequence of tobacco and how harmful it is to babies and their health. In gain to this material, a small scale research component has been included which leads to an evaluation of both the primary and secondary sources.LITERATURE REVIEWIn declination 1998, the Department of wellness published hummer Kills a White melodic theme on tobacco, which set unwrap practical measures to reduce smoking among men, women, children and most particular women with pregnancy. Office for study statistics 2008 2009, smoking related behaviour and attitude. take is the inhalation of the smoke of b urning tobacco encased in cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. many a(prenominal) health experts now regard habitual smoking as a psychological addiction, too, and one with serious health consequences. McCoy. K, Tobacco smoking knave 226.For some people its be pillow slip they believe that they cant live without the cause of smoking, such as relieving stress and giving pleasure. For others its because smoking is associated with fun and social activities, such as a break from work out or meeting with friends in the pub. McConoile. B, Women and pregnancy part 3- varlet 196.Everyone has contrastive reasons for smoking and tobacco is use to fill many needs. Some of the tell reasons are the physical, emotional and psychological effects that cigarettes hold back they can withal be use as a tool when socialising. Fintan O Toole, wellness correspondent Article- Life & Style, The Guardian 19/12/2008. heater is used as a way to suppress uncomfortable qualitys, and smoking is used to alleviate stress, calm nerves, and relax. No wonder that when you are deprived of smoking, your sound judgement and bole are unsettled for a little while. (Kirkup, J, Daily telegraph 22 February 2008, smoking and hazards.The habit of cigarette smoking is often used to tranquilize emotional issues like anxiety, stress, or low self-esteem. In sum, smoking provides comfort to people with conditions of chronic pain and depression. Smokers with emotional stress or chronic pain often turn to smoking as an crusade to treat their pain. Dr. Annette, October 15, 2009, why people smoke cigarettes.Smokers often say that discharge up a cigarette can calm their nerves, satisfy their cravings, and support them feel energized. Indeed, nicotine in tobacco joins on to receptors in your brain that make out feel good chemicals that can make you feel calm and energized all at once. take acts as a medicine, inducing a feeling of well-being with each puff. Chorlton. P, Life tint Management page 89.Smoking is a way to avoid feeling unpleasant emotions such as sadness, grief, and anxiety. It can hide apprehensions, fears, and pain. This is accomplished partly through with(predicate) the chemical effects of nicotine on the brain. Moor. S, The Journal 23 litigate 2006.According to a study carried at the University of Nottingham by the Genetics of Pre-Eclampsia Consortium, pregnant women who smoke station the lives of their unborn babies at risk. This study was funded by the British Heart macrocosm and strongly supports the opinion of many leading experts who advise that expectant mothers should quit smoking whilst pregnant.- NHS, Information Centre, September 28, 2006, Statistics on NHS Stop Smoking operate. bulge out of the total 1001 women, 38.8 percent smokers delivered premature babies as compared to 21.3 percent of non-smokers. 46.1 percent of smokers delivered low birth weight babies when compared to 27.9 percent non-smokers. 65.6 percent of smokers delivere d babies with adverse conditions when compared to 60 percent of former smokers and 50.4 percent of non-smokers Heath Express, December 5 2008, smoking and pre-eclampsiaThe most recent CDC survey (from 2008) showed that more than 1 in 6 American women aged 18 years or older (18.3%) smoke-cured cigarettes. The highest rates were seen among American-Indian and Al filma-Native women (22.4%), followed by white (20.6%), African-American (17.8%), Hispanic (10.7%), and Asian women (4.7%). CDC womens health emergences and material (1999), smoking among pregnant women.Smoking during pregnancy is associated with many fatal and neo-natal problems such as low birth weight, pre-term delivery, placenta damage, miscarriage, and sudden-infant- close syndrome. It can to a fault be the cause of respiratory problems such as chest infections and can aggravate asthma in young children. CDC womens health publications and material (1999), smoking among pregnant women.Tobacco use accounts for nearly 1 in 3 cancer deaths. Tens of thousands of women will die this year from lung cancer, which has shot knightly breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among women. Almost 90% of these lung cancer deaths will be due to smoking. ACS, March 2001, Women and SmokingWhen the mother smokes, so does the baby. Smokers take in poisons such as nicotine and carbon monoxide (the same gas that comes out of a cars exhaust pipe). These poisons get into the placenta, which is the tissue that connects the mother and the baby before it is born. These poisons lionize theunborn baby from getting the food and oxygen needed to grow. Partnerships for a Tobacco- assuage Maine, 2010, Parent smoking among pregnant women.New studies show that if a womans partner smokes near her during her pregnancy, there are added risks. It is beat for the mother, baby, and entire family to quit tobacco. If family and friends continue to smoke the pregnant mother should ask them non to smoke near her. Lungs UK, 2010 Mothers smoking among pregnant women.Due to smoking habits among pregnant women, approximately 4000 fatal deaths occur every year. It too includes miscarriages. Smoking among pregnant women also leads to premature births, low birth weight, cot death and asthma. In addition smoking is also associated with learning difficulties among children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy, which is to that extent a nonher good reason why women who are pregnant should depend giving up. Heath Express, December 5 2008, smoking and pre-eclampsia.Women who smoke greatly increase their risk of heart disease (the leading killer among women) and stroke. find goes up with the number of cigarettes smoked and the length of time a woman has been smoking. notwithstanding though most of the women who die of heart disease are past menopause, smoking increases the risk more in younger women than in older women. ACS, March 2001, Women and Smoking.Heart disease and diseases of the blood vessels ( cardiovascular disease) are more common in women who smoke than in those who dont. Research indicates that women who smoke and also use hormonal contraceptives have a particularly high risk of developing heart disease or blood clots that can lead to stroke. eHealth MD, 2000, smoking, alcohol, and pregnancy.Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death in UK. One out of five smokers, following a gruelling history of lung diseases including pneumonia, emphysema, bronchitis and COPD with eventually die from cancer associated with smoking. Champix 2008, vacate smoking and champix.Smoking also increases the risk of many other types of cancer other than lung cancer, including cancers of the throat, mouth, pancreas, kidney, bladder, breast, and cervix. Heart Attacks, individuals that smoke are six times more presumable to experience a heart attack when compared to individuals that choose not to smoke. Powell. J, drug Abuse (Emotional Health Issues 2007) page 27.Smok ing also promotes the development free radicals which are highly unstable molecules that cause disease and damage to cellular telephone DNA. The cells of your body start behaving erratically producing a range of responses that make your contend age faster. BBC News,Thursday, 28 December, 2006, Cigarettes Smoking effects.If you smoke more than a 1/2 pack of cigarette per day for over six months you have a one in three chance that you will not perform to previous levels in the bedroom, softness to perform, inability to a achieve, inability to maintain an erection. Lamb. K, Health Issue 2001, Cigarettes smoking.Research carried out by Oxford University numberd that smoking cost the NHS in the UK 5.2 billion in 2005/06, approximately 5.5% of total health care costs4. This updates the estimated cost of between 1.4 and 1.5 billion a year, estimated by research carried out by the Oxford University. Statistics, Health, 2001, Smoking Related Behaviour & Attitudes.In 2008, it is estima ted that almost one in five deaths in England of people over 35 years of age were due to smoking. Over a third of all deaths from respiratory diseases and almost three in ten of all deaths from cancers in this population are estimated to be caused by smoking. A higher proportion of smoking attributed deaths were seen for men compared to women. Oxford Journal, 2008, Volume 105, Number 41, Cancer Risk for Smoker.Dr Miriam Stoppard said motherliness can be a particularly difficult time to stop smoking and rather than stigmatising these women, we should be guiding them to their local NHS Stop Smoking Service for expert advice and support. BBC News, Wednesday, 4 February 2009, Health, pregnant smokers fear reflection.The total number of successful quitters delivered by NHS Stop Smoking Services between 2003/04 and 2005/06 was 832,700. The Department of Health Priorities and Planning Framework (PPF) target of 800,000 successful quitters over this period was achieved.- NHS, Information Centre, September 28, 2006, Statistics on NHS Stop Smoking Services.The number of women who smoke has been falling steadily in recent years. No one can deny that quitting smoking it is a difficult process. Even so, many women give up smoking for good during pregnancy. eHealth MD, 2000, smoking, alcohol, and pregnancy.Women who give up smoking early in pregnancy and who receive encouragement from their partners and from midwives are most likely to be successful in becoming permanent non-smokers. BBC News, 2007, Health issue, smoking, and pregnancy.The Smoking and Health (ASH) and the British Medical Association (BMA) estimate that up to 120,000 men over 30 years old induce from impotence as a negative effect of smoking. This figure is likely to be very conservative, because it does not include impotence due to previous smoking in men who no longer smoke. Office of the home(a) statistics 25 April 2010, cigarettes smoking.The proportion of adults who smoked cigarettes swing substan tially in the seventies and the early 1980s from 45 per cent in 1974 to 35 per cent in 1982. After 1982 it declined gradually until the early 1990s, levelling out during the 1990s. It then fell smoothly from 28 per cent in 1998/99 to 24 per cent in 2005. Office of the national statistics 25 April 2010, cigarettes smoking.ObjectiveThe objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that, Tobacco smoking is adversely affecting the health of unborn babies among pregnant women. With the use of primary and secondary research to test the above mentioned hypothesis, there will be an emphasis on relevant literature such as journals, studies, surveys and statistics, both independent and governmental. In addition to this literature, the projects questionnaire will add another symmetry to the research giving it more essence and making it more satisfactory. The case of the project is to have basic knowledge and awareness of the danger of tobacco smoking to pregnant women who s mokes and also the dangerous effect to the unborn babies. regularityThe research project shall engross both primary and secondary research and then evaluate both sources and produce a conclusion of results.The primary research will consist of a questionnaire, the unexpended anonymous is to cling to the identity of the participants. Consequently, making them feel comfortable so that their answers will be as frank as possible. When all the gathered information is collected, comparisons can be made to determine my hypothesis. Tobacco smoking is adversely affecting the health of unborn babies among pregnant women on.There will hardly be a small sample of questionnaires to process the results. Therefore, it will not be a true reflection of society and its trends. The results from the survey will not have any significance on a national level, although, the participants do come from verity backgrounds and a range of nationalities.The study for secondary research will be produced from per tinent literature that will be reviewed and documented, the use of applicable radio and television programs and appropriate web sites. By using these informative mediums a deeper understanding and better insight into this much argued topic will be gained.In the process of carrying out this research, a lot of issues were put into consideration especially the ethnicity and nationality of respondents.ResultsThe primary research consisted of the 15 questionnaires being distributed, 12 smoking pregnant women responded showing their ages to range from 18 to 40 years and 8 another non smoking pregnant women responded also showing their ages to range form 18 40 years. The survey report presents the finding of research into young women excessive drinking in Barking and Dagenham. In recent years there has been rising concern about the prevalence of smokers behaviour, especially among pregnant women.Smoking among pregnant women has also increases the risk of many other types of diseases that have led to the death of their babies. Smoking habits among pregnant women is intolerable, about 4000 fatal deaths occur every year. It also includes miscarriages. Smoking among pregnant women also leads to premature births, low birth weight, cot death and asthma. In addition smoking is also associated with learning difficulties among children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy, which is yet another good reason why women who are pregnant should consider giving up.pic ratingThe structure of the questionnaire was to establish where and how pregnant women indulge in tobacco smoking, chance(a) intake of tobacco, consequences of tobacco and the awareness of the affect of tobacco to their unborn babies, and the aesculapian efforts and advice to reduce frequent intake of tobacco among pregnant women.The research shows that majority of pregnant women goes into smoking because of various reasons. My research shows that pregnant women smoke to be sociable with their friends, boredom, st ress, relaxation, parent influence and also family influence.According to the result of my research, 60 percent agreed that they were suffering from the side effect of smoking tobacco. bulk of them complained of various illness and side effect of tobacco such as constant headache, coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing mucus or blood, dry and puckish cough, fever, chest discomfort, foetal development problems, and brain damage and other tremendous tortuosity to unborn child, according to pregnant women.The research also shows that the respondents who fill up out my questionnaire agreed that they have loss their dear ones through tobacco smoking either by asthma, cancer, coronary artery disease, heart disease, stroke, lungs disease, complication during pregnancy and many other diseases resulting from tobacco smoking.The hypothesis has been proven through this evidence produced in the primary and secondary research that tobacco smoking is unavoidable, and it will be ex tremely difficult to outlaw it in the society. The solo possible solution to this problem is to continue to make general publication about the severe influence and the harms it can cause to their foetus and the unborn babies.Figure1Age Range that Smoke during pregnancyFigure 2Tobacco Consumption during maternal qualityFigure 3Ranges of Smoking and Non Smoking during PregnancyFigure 4Reasons for SmokingFigure 5Frequency of Smoking during PregnancyFigure 6Types of Tobacco Smoking by heavy(predicate) WomenBibliographyLiteratureFirth. L, 2001, Smoking Problem, Volume 43, Smith University, promulgated The Independence Royston. A, Tobacco Learn to Say No Oxford, newspaper publisher Heinemann Library Lamb. K, Tobacco Smoking Health Issue 2001, London, Publisher White ThomsonWechsler. H, PhD and Wuethrich. B, 2002, Addicted to Smoking Tackling the Diseases Published by World Book USA. Plant. M, and Plant. M, 2006, Smoking in Britain Drugs and the National Response, Publisher Oxford Univ ersity Press. Dr, Mapstone. J, Acting Director of Public Health, November 2007, Smoking and Pregnancy, Glasgow, Publisher The independence Ward. M, 1998, feel for for someone with drugs Addicts (carer handbook series) Publisher Age Concern Hamilton. K, 1999, Drugs and Pregnancy your body (Healthy Body) London, Publisher Hodder WaylandJournalsParker. Colins, Tutor, 2010 HandoutMoor. S, The Journal 23 March 2006.Institution of Drugs schoolchild 2007 Issue 2.McConoile. B, Pregnant women under Tobacco influence part 2- page 186.McCoy. K, & Dr. Wibbelsman. C, The teenager health page 148 Powell. J, Pregnancy and drug Abuse (Emotional Health Issues 2008) page 13.Foster. R.K, and Marriott, 2006, Women and Pregnancy, volume 31 Issue 4, page 286 308Chorlton. P, Life Quality Management page 64.Internetnews.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/3121440smokingissues.co.uk/know-your-limits-responsible homemed4u.co.uk/ /Smoking-tobacco-causes-death.aspsurreyhypnosisclinic.co.uk/ Drugs-HypnosisinCamberle yww.nhs.uk/Livewell/smoking/ Pages/Effectsofdrugs.aspxwww.guardian.co.uk/uk/ pregnancy/feedarticle/8491829www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1537484/tobacco-smoking-among-pregnant womenwww.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/smokingwww.smokingissues.co.uk/ uk-s-relationship-with-tobaccol.htmlwww.nhs.uk/Livewell/pregnancyl/ Pages/Effectsoftobaccol.aspx www.ias.org.uk/resources/ factsheets/pregnancy/smoking.pdf

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