Friday, November 15, 2019

Constructivist Curriculum Framework for Maths and Science

Constructivist Curriculum Framework for Maths and Science Through investigating his world, a child uses natural curiosity to formulate theories and construct knowledge. Incorporating big ideas into the curriculum, teachers can engage children as they develop a deeper understanding of concepts that are related (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Further supporting childrens learning, assessments are crucial in formulating instruction, and understanding what a child knows and can do. A culmination of the aforementioned strategies will be discussed, in relation to the constructivist learning theory. Constructivism Theory Constructivism learning theory is a philosophy which enhances students rational and conceptual growth. The basic premise within constructivism, is the function experiences, or connections, play in a childs learning. In an attempt to understand his world, a child reflects on his experiences to build new knowledge (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). A child is an active participant in creating knowledge. When he encounters something new, he reconciles it with previous ideas, abandons irrelevant information, and generates new knowledge. Constructivism does not dismiss the crucial role teachers play in facilitating learning. Teachers are instrumental in creating the learning environment, as well as opportunities for theory-building through utilizing big ideas (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Through the guidance of an expert, a child is encouraged to learn at a higher level. Theory-Building in Young Children The constructivists approach views children with a natural desire to understand his or her world. To comprehend, a child develops theories, explores the theories, and constructs new knowledge based on the results and what he already knows While teaching a unit on animals, students became particularly interested in penguins, and why they have wings but do not fly. The teacher decides to allow the children to further explore penguins as part of a research unit. The children discover that penguins use their wings to swim, and are excellent swimmers. This discovery prompted some students to develop a theory that all animals with wings are good swimmers. The teacher schedules a tour to the local zoo to observe several winged animals; some of which who swim, and some who do not. During the visit, students had several questions about specific animals, and began to understand that not all animals who have wings can swim. The children initially believed all animals with wings can fly. After l earning that penguins have wings, but use them to swim, the students understood that not all animals with wings can fly. They then adjust their thinking again to believe all animals with wings can swim. Through this process of theory-building, the students constructed new knowledge about winged animals. Big Ideas in Instruction Building on topics that interest children, big ideas provide structure that promote further learning (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Utilizing big ideas, children develop a curiosity about concepts, and are better able to make sense of otherwise isolated facts. Learning concepts that are connected to an overarching idea, support more comprehensive understanding (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). A big idea that can be used in the early childhood classroom, is the big idea relationships. Engaging students through the study of community helpers, and how they can help them, could encompass various areas of the curriculum. Music can be incorporated as songs are sung about various community helper jobs. Exploring community helper vehicles, students would have the opportunity to sort small toy vehicles according to characteristics, or finger paint a picture of the vehicles. These activities promote fine motor skills. An art component can also be integrated, as children draw, or finger paint pictures of the vehicle that are used to help the community. Playing various helpers jobs, could create opportunities for children to explore and discover how various tools are used to perform the jobs. This can also invite discussion about the exchange of goods or services. Through play, children will interact with each other and the environment, developing interest in the big ideas that frame them (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Music and movement can be incorporated as children sing songs about the helpers, and pretend to do each job. Assessing Math and Science Assessments should support a childs learning of math and science concepts. Appropriate assessment methods are vital to evaluating what a child has learned, and forming future instruction. When assessing young childrens conceptual development in math and science, educators must consider the course of development for each child, as well as his or her culture and background (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Evaluation of the skills learned by young children must rely upon practices that fit expected learning skills and behavior for their stage, and adjust as appropriate to support growth and development. Posing specific open-ended questions, assessments should be conducted in various settings, including whole group, and one on one situations to acquire an actual picture of the childs comprehension of concepts (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Assessment Guides Instruction The overall objective of assessments, is to assist teachers in making appropriate instructional decisions regarding how to best teach children. Each childs learning should be assessed as part of an ongoing cycle of planning, documenting, and evaluation. Following, or during instruction, an assessment is conducted and analyzed to formulate decisions to re-teach, offer further support, or proceed with the current plan (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Assessment Documentation Documentation includes, gathering and analyzing information about childrens knowledge and is vital to the process of assessing childrens learning. Through various types of documentation, evidence of a childs though process is preserved to support the teachers analysis (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Two forms of documentation that support assessments are, recording comments of children as they work and, compiling a book of childrens illustrations (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Recording children, and their conversation while working, provides significant information regarding the learning and thought process. As children are encouraged to make representations of their learning, and provided with the tools necessary, they can represent their understanding of a concept (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). The finished product can be compiled into a class book and serve as documentation of their learning. Both methods are useful when discussing progress with the child, or with families. Interviewing for Assessment Consisting of four main parts, the flexible interview allows the child to manipulate materials as he or she explains their thought process (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). This method gives the teacher insight into the childs thinking Conducting an interview is an effective tool to assess childrens understanding of math and science concepts. Interviewing gathers valuable information that will aid the teacher in understanding the childs thinking, and plan effective lessons that meet the needs of each child (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Conclusion The constructivist approach focuses on a child constructing learning based on his experiences. Because of his desire to comprehend the world, a child will build and apply theories to develop understanding, resulting in the formation of new learning. The teacher can aid children in learning at a higher level, by implementing big ideas in the curriculum. Assessments are also instrumental in promoting a childs learning. Assessments in math and science can inform a teacher about what the child knows and can do. In the absence of assessments, teaching would be comprised of lessons and activities that move forward, whether they make sense, or a child understands or not. Through assessment, and documentation, instruction is formulated to meet the needs of all children. References Chaillà ©, C., Davis, S. M. (2016). Integrating math and science in early childhood classrooms through big ideas: A constructivist approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Through investigating his world, a child uses natural curiosity to formulate theories and construct knowledge. Incorporating big ideas into the curriculum, teachers can engage children as they develop a deeper understanding of concepts that are related (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Further supporting childrens learning, assessments are crucial in formulating instruction, and understanding what a child knows and can do. A culmination of the aforementioned strategies will be discussed, in relation to the constructivist learning theory. Constructivism Theory Constructivism learning theory is a philosophy which enhances students rational and conceptual growth. The basic premise within constructivism, is the function experiences, or connections, play in a childs learning. In an attempt to understand his world, a child reflects on his experiences to build new knowledge (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). A child is an active participant in creating knowledge. When he encounters something new, he reconciles it with previous ideas, abandons irrelevant information, and generates new knowledge. Constructivism does not dismiss the crucial role teachers play in facilitating learning. Teachers are instrumental in creating the learning environment, as well as opportunities for theory-building through utilizing big ideas (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Through the guidance of an expert, a child is encouraged to learn at a higher level. Theory-Building in Young Children The constructivists approach views children with a natural desire to understand his or her world. To comprehend, a child develops theories, explores the theories, and constructs new knowledge based on the results and what he already knows While teaching a unit on animals, students became particularly interested in penguins, and why they have wings but do not fly. The teacher decides to allow the children to further explore penguins as part of a research unit. The children discover that penguins use their wings to swim, and are excellent swimmers. This discovery prompted some students to develop a theory that all animals with wings are good swimmers. The teacher schedules a tour to the local zoo to observe several winged animals; some of which who swim, and some who do not. During the visit, students had several questions about specific animals, and began to understand that not all animals who have wings can swim. The children initially believed all animals with wings can fly. After l earning that penguins have wings, but use them to swim, the students understood that not all animals with wings can fly. They then adjust their thinking again to believe all animals with wings can swim. Through this process of theory-building, the students constructed new knowledge about winged animals. Big Ideas in Instruction Building on topics that interest children, big ideas provide structure that promote further learning (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Utilizing big ideas, children develop a curiosity about concepts, and are better able to make sense of otherwise isolated facts. Learning concepts that are connected to an overarching idea, support more comprehensive understanding (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). A big idea that can be used in the early childhood classroom, is the big idea relationships. Engaging students through the study of community helpers, and how they can help them, could encompass various areas of the curriculum. Music can be incorporated as songs are sung about various community helper jobs. Exploring community helper vehicles, students would have the opportunity to sort small toy vehicles according to characteristics, or finger paint a picture of the vehicles. These activities promote fine motor skills. An art component can also be integrated, as children draw, or finger paint pictures of the vehicle that are used to help the community. Playing various helpers jobs, could create opportunities for children to explore and discover how various tools are used to perform the jobs. This can also invite discussion about the exchange of goods or services. Through play, children will interact with each other and the environment, developing interest in the big ideas that frame them (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Music and movement can be incorporated as children sing songs about the helpers, and pretend to do each job. Assessing Math and Science Assessments should support a childs learning of math and science concepts. Appropriate assessment methods are vital to evaluating what a child has learned, and forming future instruction. When assessing young childrens conceptual development in math and science, educators must consider the course of development for each child, as well as his or her culture and background (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Evaluation of the skills learned by young children must rely upon practices that fit expected learning skills and behavior for their stage, and adjust as appropriate to support growth and development. Posing specific open-ended questions, assessments should be conducted in various settings, including whole group, and one on one situations to acquire an actual picture of the childs comprehension of concepts (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Assessment Guides Instruction The overall objective of assessments, is to assist teachers in making appropriate instructional decisions regarding how to best teach children. Each childs learning should be assessed as part of an ongoing cycle of planning, documenting, and evaluation. Following, or during instruction, an assessment is conducted and analyzed to formulate decisions to re-teach, offer further support, or proceed with the current plan (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Assessment Documentation Documentation includes, gathering and analyzing information about childrens knowledge and is vital to the process of assessing childrens learning. Through various types of documentation, evidence of a childs though process is preserved to support the teachers analysis (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Two forms of documentation that support assessments are, recording comments of children as they work and, compiling a book of childrens illustrations (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Recording children, and their conversation while working, provides significant information regarding the learning and thought process. As children are encouraged to make representations of their learning, and provided with the tools necessary, they can represent their understanding of a concept (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). The finished product can be compiled into a class book and serve as documentation of their learning. Both methods are useful when discussing progress with the child, or with families. Interviewing for Assessment Consisting of four main parts, the flexible interview allows the child to manipulate materials as he or she explains their thought process (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). This method gives the teacher insight into the childs thinking Conducting an interview is an effective tool to assess childrens understanding of math and science concepts. Interviewing gathers valuable information that will aid the teacher in understanding the childs thinking, and plan effective lessons that meet the needs of each child (Chaillà ¨ Davis, 2016). Conclusion The constructivist approach focuses on a child constructing learning based on his experiences. Because of his desire to comprehend the world, a child will build and apply theories to develop understanding, resulting in the formation of new learning. The teacher can aid children in learning at a higher level, by implementing big ideas in the curriculum. Assessments are also instrumental in promoting a childs learning. Assessments in math and science can inform a teacher about what the child knows and can do. In the absence of assessments, teaching would be comprised of lessons and activities that move forward, whether they make sense, or a child understands or not. Through assessment, and documentation, instruction is formulated to meet the needs of all children. References Chaillà ©, C., Davis, S. M. (2016). Integrating math and science in early childhood classrooms through big ideas: A constructivist approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

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