Thursday, August 8, 2019

Mainstream Conceptions of Gender and Development Term Paper

Mainstream Conceptions of Gender and Development - Term Paper Example However, this is not the case as gender approaches and issues cover both men and women and the relationships between men and women. The emergence of gender and developed has taken shape over the past decades and it has evolved from issues of women to encompass both gender. To understand better the conception and development of gender and development, it is important to trace the history of gender and the emergence of gender and development as a concept. This paper critically examines the mainstream conceptions of gender and development by exploring the evolution of gender and development from feminist development approaches and the integration frameworks that led to its uptake. Conceptions of Gender and Development The emergence and conception of gender and development is pegged on the issue of gender and the relationships between men and women. Gender can be viewed on two aspects, namely, the social construction perspective and the relationship between sexes. As a socially construct ed aspect, gender refers to the social design of a biological sex that is determined and influenced by the tasks, functions and roles that are attributed to women and men in society (Council of Europe, 2004). Gender also refers the social construction of the relationship between the sexes and it often revolves around unequal power relationship where male dominate while female act in subordination. Gender therefore refers to the range of socially constructed roles of males and females and the relationships between them. According to UNESCO, gender refers to the roles and responsibilities of men and women that are created in our families, societies, and cultures and it entails the expectations held on characteristics, aptitudes and likely behaviours of femininity and masculinity (Jimenez & World Bank, 2007). Due to prior pre-defined gender roles, men and women usually undertake various productive and reproductive roles in development. Gender and development evolved as a sequence of we stern feminism theories and ideologies. Indeed, the history of gender and development issues requires thorough and comprehensive understanding of development and feminists theoretical frameworks and concepts. The evolution of gender and development can be attributed to the intensified global awareness of women and gender issues. During the pre-war days, women and gender issues were marginalized from development issues and processes. This period was characterized by a development phase where women were conspicuously absent and invisible and their experiences were ignored. However, there were little progress that was made in relation to the recognition and acknowledgement of experiences of prominent women in the society. This phase recognized the experience and contribution of prominent and unusual women but their activities were judged majorly from male perspectives (Parpart & Barriteau, 2000). The phase was also dominated by the societal emphasis on the differences between sexes and there roles in the roles. During the pre-world war period, development approaches and initiatives ignored women. The post world war period re-oriented the world perspective on gender issues as it gave rise to feminist approaches that underscored the experiences of women in the society. The initial feminist approach to gender aspect were women centered as they often neglected

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