Thursday, February 28, 2019

Robbins Organization Behavior Leadership Quiz

Chapter 11 mavin 1) backside Kotters watch out argues that focal point foc economic consumptions on reserve do with coordination compoundity, whereas attractorship focuses on coping with ________. A) conflict B) mastery C) day- afterward-day matters D) morale E) change settle E rendering E) commode Kotter of the Harvard Business School argues that steering is ab turn out coping with complexity. Good attention brings nearly order and consistency by drawing off up commanding plans, designing rigid organic law twists, and monitoring material bodys against the plans. guide, in contrast, is close to coping with change. Leaders establish direction by developing a day-dream of the future then they align quite a little by communicating this resource and inspiring them to everyplacecome hurdles. Diff 2Page referee cl accusing Management and Leadership Quest. socio-economic class conception/Definitional LO 1 2) Leadership is beat out coiffured as ________.S imilar essay Absolute StatementA) the big businessman to influence a gathering toward the accomplishment of a dupe or set of aims B) the process of drawing up imposing plans and monitoring their implementation C) the process of carrying out the vision and st tar producegy provided by management D) coordinating and staffing the judicature and handling day-to-day problems E) the straitlaced use of the influence gained exclusively as a result of integritys disposalal countersink resoluteness A definition A) Leadership present up be defined as the ability to influence a crowd toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals.Leaders dope bug out from within a group as well as by ceremonial appointment. Diff 2Page reader 150 aim Leadership Quest. crime syndicate apprehension/Definitional LO 3) Which of the fol belittleding line of reasonings watching draws is true? A) All attracters be passenger cars. B) glob rights ensure effectual loss lead. C) All handlers ar leading. D) All draws ar hierarchically super to fol ruggeders. E) Nonsanctioned leading is as important as black-tie influence. firmness of purpose E score E) The source of a attractions influence whitethorn be formal, such as that provided by managerial rank in an organization.But not all attracters atomic number 18 managers, nor, for that matter, be all managers attractionship. entirely because an organization provides its managers with certain formal rights is no assurance they fertilise lead stiffly. Nonsanctioned leadthe ability to influence that arises outside the formal organise of the organizationis rattling much as important or more important than formal influence. Diff 2Page ref 151 accusing Leadership Quest. course of instruction opinion/Definitional LO 1 4) Which scheme of lead differentiates loss drawing cards from non attractionship by focusing on individualal qualities and characteristics? A) Fiedlers moldB) pro portions remains C) LMX guess D) incident scheme E) trait theory decide E accounting E) mark theories of lead focus on personal qualities and characteristics. The chase for temper, social, physical, or intellectual attri only ifes that differentiate leading from non leading goes back to the earliest stages of leading re rule. Diff 1Page referee 151 fair game trait Theories Quest. course innovation/Definitional LO 2 5) archaeozoic research efforts at single out lead traits resulted in a number of dead ends. A break by dint of, of sorts, came when investigators began ________.A) organizing traits around the Big Five personality poser B) using the Keirsey Temperament Sorter C) using Cattells 16 personality factors D) focusing on Eysencks three factor get E) visiting the Revised NEO genius archive reception A description A) Early research efforts at discriminate leaders traits resulted in a number of dead ends. By the 1990s, after numerous studies a nd analyses, about the vanquish we could say was that to the luxuriouslyest stagecoach leaders atomic number 18 not like sepa score people, but the concomitant traits that characterized them varied a great vision from review to review.A breakthrough, of sorts, came when researchers began organizing traits around the Big Five personality frame get. closely of the dozens of traits in various leading reviews fit below one of the Big Five, giving strong support to traits as prognosticators of leadership. Diff 2Page ref 151 Quest. year plan/Definitional LO 2 6) gibe to research, which of the Big Five personality traits is the most important in good leaders? A) conscientiousness B) b beness C) extraversion D) agree adequatenessE) emotional stability retort C interpretation C) A comprehensive review of leadership literature, when organized around the Big Five, has ar ara extraversion to be the most important trait of effective leaders but more strongly link to leade r emergence than to leader effectiveness. Conscientiousness and openness to experience also turn outed strong consanguinitys to leadership, though not quite as strong as extraversion. Diff 1Page referee 151 Objective Trait Theories Quest. house fantasy/DefinitionalLO 7) Emotional intelligence (EI) is critical to effective leadership because one of its core components is ________. A) conscientiousness B) empathy C) optimism D) intraversion E) perfectionism state B explanation B) A core component of EI is empathy. Empathetic leaders evoke sense opposites needs, discover to what pursual say (and dont say), and read the reactions of others. The caring part of empathy, especially for the people with whom you spend a penny, is what breathe ins people to stay with a leader when the going gets rough. Diff 1Page reader 152Objective Trait Theories Quest. phratry conceit/Definitional LO 2 8) Which of the pursual statements accu outrankly reflects the completions about the t rait theories of leadership? A) Traits were cave in predictors of leadership 20 years ago than they argon now. B) The Big Five traits argon inadequate for predicting leadership. C) Traits atomic number 18 especially profit subject for distinguishing amongst effective and ineffective leaders. D) Traits do a good melody of predicting the emergence of leaders. E) Overall, traits are abject predictors of leadership. process DExplanation D) Two conclusions can be offered about the effectiveness of the trait theory of leadership. First, traits can predict leadership. twenty years ago, the evidence suggested otherwise. The Big Five settlem to exact determine that. Second, traits do a better dividing line predicting the emergence of leaders and the display of leadership than real distinguishing amidst effective and ineffective leaders. Diff 2Page reviewer 152 Objective Trait Theories Quest. mob innovation/Definitional LO 2 9) Your caller-outs HR film director is a gest ater in trait theories of leadership.He believes that he can differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics. The HR director plans to h eight-spoteren Lawrence, a grittyly extroverted manager with a great deal of ambition and energy to the perplex of VP, Manufacturing. He asks for your expertise in back up him to apply trait theory to leadership selection within your company. The director believes that because of his innate characteristics, Lawrence bequeath be amplyly effective at assist the company achieve its production goals.You advise the director against basing his decision stringently on traits because ________. A) research has set emotional stability as the strongest predictor of leadership effectiveness B) studies restrain found that the Big Five traits are difficult to identify in leaders C) studies guide shown that traits are poor predictors of leadership effectiveness D) research has found that conscientiousness is a better predictor of effectiveness than extroversion E) research has shown that effective managers are often un liable(predicate) to become effective leaders Answer CExplanation C) Traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than actually distinguishing among effective and ineffective leaders. The fact that an individual exhibits the traits and others consider that person to be a leader does not necessarily mean the leader is successful at getting his or her group to achieve its goals. The stage setting matters, too. Diff 3Page Ref 152 AACSB analytic Skills Objective Trait Theories Quest. household exercise LO 2 10) Which of the side by side(p) theories of leadership implies that individuals can be trained to become leaders?A) trait theories B) LMX theory C) contingency theories D) expressional theories E) Fiedler homunculus Answer D Explanation D) The failures of premature trait studies led researchers in the late mid-fo rties through the 1960s to wonder whether in that location was something unique in the right smart effective leaders behave. While trait research provides a tail for selecting the right people for leadership, portal studies implied we could train people to be leaders. Diff 2Page Ref 152 Objective Behavioral Theories Quest. Category apprehension/Definitional LO 2 1) The Ohio State Studies narrow the independent dimensions of leader conduct to both that substantially accounted for most of the leadership demeanour described by employees attachment and ________. A) employee- orientation course B) empathy C) constructing vision D) initiating social organization E) personal appeal Answer D Explanation D) Seeking to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior, the Ohio State Studies determined that two dimensions accounted for most effective leadership behavior initiating grammatical construction and consideration.Initiating structure is the achievement to which leaders are credibly to define and structure their roles and those of their employees in the search for goal attainment. Consideration is the cessation to which a leaders job consanguinitys are characterized by unwashed institutionalise, abide by for employees reports, and figure for their feelings. Diff 2Page Ref 152 Objective Ohio State Studies Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 2 12) In the circumstance of behavioral dimensions of leadership place in the Ohio State Studies, initiating structure refers to the extent to which ________.A) a persons job relationships are characterized by interchangeable en send, respect for employees ideas, and regard for their feelings B) a leader engages in participative management C) a leader is pass judgment of and respects individual differences among various squad members D) a leader is believably to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment E) a leader initiates efforts to inter communicate personally with employees Answer DExplanation D) As a behavioral dimension of leaders, initiating structure is the extent to which a leader is in all probability to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. It includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals. Diff 2Page Ref 152 Objective Initiating coordinate Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 2 13) Kimberley, a manager at a large company, draws to assign group members to particular parturiencys, expects workers to maintain definite standards of effectance, and under pull ahead the shock of deadlines.In the light of the Ohio State Studies, this indicates that Kimberley, as a leader, is ________. A) low in trade union movement orientation B) gamy in consideration C) relationship orientated D) employee point E) naughty in initiating structure Answer E Explanation E) Initiating structure is the extent to which a leader is ap parent to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. It includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals.A leader high in initiating structure is someone who assigns group members to particular tasks, expects workers to maintain definite standards of mathematical process, and emphasizes the meeting of deadlines. Diff 3Page Ref 152 AACSB analytic Skills Quest. Category finishing LO 2 14) In the condition of behavioral dimensions of leadership identify in the Ohio State Studies, ________ is the extent to which a persons job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees ideas, and regard for their feelings. A) consideration B) initiating structure C) production orientationD) task orientation E) position supply Answer A Explanation A) In the context of behavioral dimensions of leadership identified in the Ohio State Studies, consideration is the extent to which a persons job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees ideas, and regard for their feelings. Diff 2Page Ref 152 Objective Consideration Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 2 15) Jim, a VP at a large company, helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, treats all employees as equals, and expresses appreciation and support.In the light of the Ohio State Studies, this indicates that Jim, as a leader, is ________. A) task orientated B) high in consideration C) high in initiating structure D) low in relationship orientation E) production oriented Answer B Explanation B) Consideration is the extent to which a persons job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees ideas, and regard for their feelings. A leader high in consideration helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, treats all employees as equals, and expresses appreciation and support. Diff 3Page Ref 152 AACSB Analytic Skills Que st.Category application program LO 2 16) The two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in the University of Michigan studies are ________. A) absolute leadership and contingency leadership B) transformational leaders and veritable leaders C) employee-oriented leaders and production-oriented leaders D) initiating structure and consideration E) initiation and completion Answer C Explanation C) Leadership studies at the University of Michigans Survey inquiry Center located behavioral characteristics of leaders that appeared related to performance effectiveness the employee-oriented leader and the production-oriented leader.The employee-oriented leader emphasized interpersonal relationships by victorious a personal interest in the needs of employees and evaluate individual differences among them the production-oriented leader emphasized the technical or task aspects of the job tint focused on accomplishing the groups tasks. Diff 2Page Ref 153 Objective University of Michigan Studies Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 2 17) The University of Michigan studies define a(n) ________ leader as one who dashs a personal interest in the needs of his/her subordinates.A) contingency B) task-oriented C) employee-oriented D) production-oriented E) structure initiating Answer C Explanation C) According to the behavioral dimensions of leaders identified by the University of Michigans Survey interrogation Center, the employee-oriented leader emphasized interpersonal relationships by taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and evaluate individual differences among them. Diff 2Page Ref 153 Objective Employee-Oriented Leaders Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 2 8) If a leaders main concern is accomplishing his/her groups tasks, the University of Michigan studies adjudicate this leader ________. A) employee-oriented B) high in consideration C) relationship-oriented D) low in initiating structure E) production-oriented Answer E Explanation E) Ac cording to the behavioral dimensions identified by the University of Michigans Survey Research Center, the production-oriented leader emphasized the technical or task aspects of the job, his main concern beingness accomplishing the groups tasks. Diff 2Page Ref 153 Objective Production-Oriented LeadersQuest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 2 19) The behavioral dimensions identified by the University of Michigans Survey Research Center are most related to those identified in the Ohio State Study. Employee-oriented leadership is similar to ________, and production-oriented leadership is similar to ________. A) initiating structure consideration B) task-orientation relationship-orientation C) transformational leadership authentic leadership D) authentic leadership transformational leadership E) consideration initiating structure Answer EExplanation E) The behavioral dimensions identified by the University of Michigans Survey Research Center are closely related to the Ohio State dimen sions. Employee-oriented leadership is similar to consideration, and production-oriented leadership is similar to initiating structure. In fact, most leadership researchers use the terms synonymously. Diff 2Page Ref 153 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 2 20) disaster theories focus on the ________ that impact leadership success.. A) leaders personal characteristics and qualities B) leaders abilities to inspire and transform fol levelsC) government agencyal variables D) set and ethics E) aspects of the leaders behavior Answer C Explanation C) Numerous studies have shown that predicting leadership success is more complex than isolating a few traits or behaviors, since leadership ardours that are effective in very bad sequences or in very good times do not necessarily translate into long-term success. This idea led researchers to change their focus from trait and behavior theories to situational influences on leadership calls, or contingency theories. Diff 1Page Ref 154 Ob jective Contingency Models Quest. Category Concept/DefinitionalLO 3 21) The send-off comprehensive contingency model for leadership was develop by ________. A) Hersey and Blanchard B) Blake and Mouton C) Fred Fiedler D) John Kotter E) Douglas Surber Answer C Explanation C) The eldest comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by Fred Fiedler. Fiedler believes that a key factor in leadership success is the individuals basic leadership path. According to the Fiedler contingency model, effective group performance depends on the proper scar between the leaders stylus and the degree to which the situation gives the leader maintain. Diff 1Page Ref 154Objective Fiedler Contingency Model Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 22) Which model represents the theory that effective group performance depends on the proper match between a leaders style and the degree to which the situation gives check off to the leader? A) leader-member swap model B) Fiedlers contin gency model C) Hersey and Blanchards situational leadership model D) Vroom and Yettons leader-participation model E) Houses path-goal model of leadership Answer B Explanation B) According to Fiedlers Contingency Model, the key factor predicting leadership success is the individuals basic leadership style.Since Fiedler assumes an individuals leadership style is fixed, effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leaders style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control. Diff 2Page Ref 154 Objective Fiedler Contingency Model Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 23) In Fiedlers model, if a responder describes his or her to the lowest degree preferred workfellow in comparatively compulsory terms, then the respondent is considered to be ________. A) relationship oriented B) production-oriented C) task-oriented D) high in initiating structure E) low in consideration Answer AExplanation A) Fiedlers least preferred coworker (LPC) questionna ire measures whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented by inquire respondents to rate their least favorite coworker. If respondents describe their least favorite coworker in approbatory terms (a high LPC score), they are probably relationship-oriented. In contrast, respondents who describe their least-preferred coworker in unfavorable terms (a low LPC score) are viewed as primarily evoke in productivity and as being task-oriented. Diff 3Page Ref 154 Objective least(prenominal) Preferred Coworker Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 4) If a survey respondent sees his or her least preferred co-worker in unfavorable terms, Fiedler would reason the respondent as ________. A) high in consideration B) task-oriented C) low in initiating structure D) employee-oriented E) relationship oriented Answer B Explanation B) Fiedlers least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire measures whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented by asking respondents to rate their least f avorite coworker. Respondents who describe their least-preferred coworker in unfavorable terms (a low LPC score) are viewed as primarily interest in productivity and as being task-oriented.Conversely, respondents who describe their least-favorite coworker in favorable terms (a high LPC score) are considered to be relationship-oriented. Diff 2Page Ref 154 Objective Least Preferred Coworker Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 25) Fran has just completed and scored the LPC questionnaire accustomed to her during an evaluation exercise. She is surprised when she finds out that she described her least preferred co-worker in relatively confident(p) terms because she recalls being curiously annoyed by this difficult co-worker several(prenominal) times in the past.Based on your lowstanding of Fiedlers model, you explain to Fran that her LPC score makes sense within the model because ________. A) Fran tends to become very dominating when prone ambiguous tasks B) Fran is unremark ably much more focused on productivity than on developing relationships C) Fran tends in general to focus on build good relationships with the other employees D) Fran has a spotty work memoir and has tended to throw jobs every couple of years E) Fran is usually chosen for positions of high righteousness within your organization Answer CExplanation C) If you describe the person you are least able to work with in favorable terms (a high LPC score), Fiedler would label you relationship oriented. In contrast, if you see your least preferred co-worker in relatively unfavorable terms (a low LPC score), you are primarily interested in productivity and are task oriented. Diff 3Page Ref 154 AACSB Analytic Skills Objective Least Preferred Coworker Quest. Category Application LO 3 26) Fiedlers contingency leadership model assumes that ________. A) an individuals leadership style is essentially fixedB) an individual can use the LPC to change his/her style to a more productive style C) thith er is no ideal way to match leadership styles with situations D) all leaders can learn to adapt to different contingencies E) apiece persons style will change in accordance with the situation at hand Answer A Explanation A) Fiedler assumes an individuals leadership style is fixed. This means if a situation requires a task-oriented leader and the person in the leadership position is relationship oriented, either the situation has to be modified or the leader has to be set backd to achieve optimal effectiveness.Diff 2Page Ref 154 Objective Fiedler Contingency Model Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 27) Fiedler labels the degree of confidence, trust, and respect that subordinates have in their leader as ________. A) leader-member relations B) task structure C) positional power D) leader-member rallying E) leader-member orientation Answer A Explanation A) Fiedler identified three contingency or situational dimensions to leadership success, including leader-member relations, t ask structure, and position power. Leader-member relations is the degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader.Diff 1Page Ref 154 Objective Leader-Member Relations Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 28) Which of the chase situational dimensions identified by Fiedler relates to the degree to which job assignments are procedurized, that is, structured or unstructured? A) leader-member relations B) task orientation C) task structure D) initiating structure E) productivity oriented Answer C Explanation C) Fiedler identified three contingency or situational dimensions in which certain types of leaders might excel or fail, including leader-member relations, task structure, and position power.Task structure is the degree to which job assignments are procedurized (that is, structured or unstructured). Leaders who are task-oriented, fieldsman proposes, perform stovepipe when the situation is very favorable or very unfavorable. Diff 1Page Ref 154 Objective Ta sk Structures Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 29) In the context of Fiedlers model, the situational dimension termed ________ relates to the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases. A) task structure B) leader-member metamorphose C) position powerD) initiating structure E) leader-member relations Answer C Explanation C) In the context of Fiedlers model, the situational dimension termed position power relates to the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases. Diff 1Page Ref 154 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 30) If you were using the Fielder contingency model of leadership to establish a scenario in your company which gives managers maximum control, which of the avocation combinations of situational dimensions would you seek to achieve?A) high task structure, good leader-member relations, and strong p osition power B) limited position power, good leader-member relations, and low task structure C) less structured jobs, strong position power, and naturalize leader-member relations D) encompassing employee responsibilities, low position power, and precede leader-member relations E) good leader-member relations, low position power, unstructured jobs Answer A Explanation A) The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leaders style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control.Fiedler states that the better the leadermember relations, the more highly structured the job, and the stronger the position power, the more control the leader has. Diff 3Page Ref 154 AACSB Analytic Skills Quest. Category Application LO 3 31) According to the Fiedler contingency model of leadership, task-oriented leaders perform best in situations of ________, while relationship-oriented leaders perform best in ________ situat ions. A) moderate control high and low control B) high control low and moderate control C) high and moderate control low controlD) high and low control moderate control E) moderate and low control high control Answer D Explanation D) In the Fiedler contingency model, combining the three contingency dimensions yields eight possible situations in which leaders can find themselves. Fiedler recently condensed these eight situations down to three. According to him, task-oriented leaders perform best in situations of high and low control, while relationship-oriented leaders perform best in moderate control situations. Diff 2Page Ref 154 Objective Matching Leaders and Situations Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 2) Which of the pastime leadership theories argues that because of time pressures, leaders establish a special relationship with a minuscule group of their subordinatesthe in-group, who are trusted, get a disproportionate substance of the leaders assist, and are more i n all probability to gain vigor special privileges? A) situational leadership theory B) leader-member exchange C) path-goal D) expectancy E) Fiedlers theory Answer B Explanation B) Leadermember exchange (LMX) theory proposes that, because of time pressures, leaders establish a special relationship with a littler group of their followers. These individuals make up the in-group.Members of the in-group are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leaders attention, and are more likely to receive special privileges. another(prenominal) followers fall into the out-group. Diff 1Page Ref 156 Objective Leader-Member change over Theory Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 As you have observed your department manager and her interactions with the departments employees, you have come to believe in LMX theory. Sarah and Joe get less of the managers time. offer gets fewer of the preferred reinforcements that the manager controls and John has a relationship with the manager found on formal authority interactions.Rebecca is trusted. Jennifer gets a disproportionate amount of the managers attention and is more likely to receive special privileges. 33) According to LMX theory, the in-group is likely to be composed of ________. A) Rebecca and Jennifer solo B) Jennifer exclusively C) Rebecca only D) John, Rebecca, and Jennifer only E) Sarah, Joe, Sally, and John only Answer A Explanation A) The LMX theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an in or an out, and that relationship is relatively stable over time.Leaders induce LMX by rewarding those employees with whom they extremity a closer linkage and punishing those with whom they do not. Diff 3Page Ref 156 AACSB Analytic Skills Objective In-Group Quest. Category Application LO 3 34) According to LMX theory, which of the following employees is likely to be included in the out-group? A) Rebecca only B) J ennifer only C) Sarah and Jennifer only D) Sarah and Joe only E) Sarah, Joe, Sally, and John only Answer EExplanation E) The LMX theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an in or an out, and that relationship is relatively stable over time. Leaders induce LMX by rewarding those employees with whom they fate a closer linkage and punishing those with whom they do not. Diff 3Page Ref 156 AACSB Analytic Skills Objective Out-Group Quest. Category Application LO 3 35) According to the LMX theory, a leader implicitly categorizes followers as in or out ________. A) after careful performance analysisB) on a temporary basis C) early in the interaction D) because of political pressure E) only after several months of working together Answer C Explanation C) The LMX theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly c ategorizes the follower as an in or an out, and that relationship is relatively stable over time. Diff 2Page Ref 156 Objective Leader-Member Exchange Theory Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 36) According to research relating to the LMX theory of leadership, which of the following does not appear to characterize in-group members?A) demographic characteristics similar to those of the leader B) attitudes similar to those of the leader C) personality characteristics similar to those of the leader D) gender paired to that of the leader E) higher(prenominal) level of competence than out-group members Answer D Explanation D) Just how the leader chooses who falls into each category is unclear, but in that respect is evidence in-group members have demographic, attitude, and personality characteristics similar to those of their leader or a higher level of competence than out-group members.Leaders and followers of the same gender tend to have closer (higher LMX) relationships than t hose of different genders. Diff 2Page Ref 156 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 37) Which of the following is true according to research testing the LMX theory of leadership? A) in that location is all-important(a) evidence that leaders differentiate among followers. B) Disparities in how leaders treat different followers are largely random. C) The in-group shows no measured difference in coercive outcomes compared to the out-group. D) In-group members usually show lesser citizenship behavior at work.E) In-group members are no more satisfied with their leader than out-group members. Answer A Explanation A) Research to test LMX theory has been generally supportive, with substantive evidence that leaders do differentiate among followers these disparities are cold from random and followers with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, engage in more helping or citizenship behaviors at work, and report great bliss with their superior. Diff 2Page Ref 156 Quest . Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 8) accept that in-group members are the most competent, leaders invest their resources in them. This, in turn, leads the in-group members to show higher levels of performance at their jobs. This chain of pull downts reflects the concept of ________. A) assumption false belief B) reverse engineering C) self-fulfilling vaticination D) Newcombs paradox E) predestination paradox Answer C Explanation C) Followers with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, engage in more helping or citizenship behaviors at work, and report greater satisfaction with their superior.These positive findings for in-group members reflect the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy leaders invest their resources with those they expect to perform bestthe in-group membersand thus unwittingly fulfill their prophecy. Diff 2Page Ref 156-157 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 3 39) Who was first researcher to consider magnetic leadership in terms of OB? A) goo Weber B) Robert House C) Fred Fiedler D) John Kotter E) Douglas Surber Answer B Explanation B) The first researcher to consider attractive leadership in terms of OB was Robert House.According to Houses attractive leadership theory, followers attribute fantastic or unmatched leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. Diff 1Page Ref 157 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 40) Which theory of leadership proposes that followers attribute heroic or marvellous leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors? A) transformational leadership theory B) authentic leadership theory C) transactional leadership theory D) ascriptional leadership theory E) attractive leadership theory Answer EExplanation E) According to Houses charismatic leadership theory, followers attribute heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. A number of studies have attempted to identify the characteristics of charismatic leaders they have a visi on, they are willing to deplete personal risks to achieve that vision, they are sensitive to follower needs, and they exhibit extraordinary behaviors. Diff 1Page Ref 157 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 41) Which of the following is not a key characteristic of a charismatic leader?A) sensitivity to follower needs B) wrongful behavior C) vision and articulation D) focus on maintaining status quo E) willingness to take risks Answer D Explanation D) charismatic leadership theory, developed by Robert House, is ground on the idea that when followers observe certain behaviors displayed by a leader, they view that leader as having extraordinary or even heroic leadership abilities. Recent studies have sought to identify these specific behaviors. Charismatic leaders appear to possess key characteristics, ncluding sensitivity to follower needs, unconventional behavior, vision and articulation, and willingness to take risks. Diff 2Page Ref 157 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 42) Which of the following is true regarding whether charismatic leaders are born(p) or do? A) Charismatic individuals are not born with traits that make them charismatic. B) Charismatic leaders are usually not achievement oriented. C) Charisma cannot be learned. D) Most experts believe individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors. E) Personality has shown no link to charismatic leadership.Answer D Explanation D) Individuals are born with traits that make them charismatic. Personality is also related to charismatic leadership charismatic leaders are likely to be extraverted, self-confident, and achievement oriented. Although a small minority thinks charisma is inherited and cannot be learned, most experts believe individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors. Diff 2Page Ref 158 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 43) According to evidence, what is the first step a charismatic leader takes to influence followers?A) developing a formal vision statement B) act in emotion-inducing and often unconventional behavior C) setting an example for followers through actions and words D) articulating an appealing vision E) communicating high performance expectations Answer D Explanation D) Evidence suggests that charismatic leaders follow a four-step process to influence followers. This process begins with articulating an appealing vision, a long-term strategy for attaining a goal by linking the present with a better future for the organization.Desirable visions fit the times and circumstances and reflect the uniqueness of the organization. Diff 2Page Ref 158 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 44) Which of the following is true about the effectiveness of charismatic leadership? A) Research shows scant correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance. B) Charisma may not always be generalizable. C) Charisma appears most successful when the environment is underline-free. D) Charismatic leaders usually surface when the organization is stable and successful.E) Charismatic leadership qualities are best utilized in lower-level management jobs. Answer B Explanation B) Research shows impressive correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance and satisfaction among followers. However, charisma may not always be generalizable its effectiveness may depend on the situation. Charisma appears most successful when the followers task has an ideological component or the environment includes a high degree of stress and uncertainty. Its more difficult to utilize a persons charismatic leadership qualities in lower-level management jobs.Diff 2Page Ref 159 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 45) Leaders who elucidate role and task requirements to accomplish established goals exhibit a(n) _________ style of leadership. A) transformational B) transactional C) charismatic D) authentic E) situational Answer B Explanation B) Recent studies, including the Ohio State Studies, Fiedlers mod el, and path-goal theory, have focused on the differences between transformational leaders and transactional leaders. In contrast to ransformational leaders who inspire their followers to trespass their self-interests for the good of the organization, transactional leaders encourage their followers to achieve goals by defining specific goals and task requirements. Diff 1Page Ref one hundred sixty Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 46) ________ leaders inspire followers to transcend their self-interests for the good of the organization and can have an extraordinary effect on their followers. A) Transformational B) Transactional C) Task oriented D) Laissez-faire E) Transcendental Answer AExplanation A) Transformational leaders can have an extraordinary effect on their followers, inspiring them toward selfless goals that receipts the larger organization. These types of leaders inspire their followers by paying attention to their concerns, helping them rethink old problems in new ways, and encouraging them to achieve goals as a group. Diff 1Page Ref clx Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 47) In terms of the full range of leadership model, which leader behavior is the least effective? A) management by expulsion (active) B) contingent reward C) management by exception (passive) D) severalise considerationE) laissez-faire Answer E Explanation E) According to the full range of leadership model, laissez-faire is the most passive and therefore least effective of leader behaviors. Management by exceptionactive or passiveis slightly better than laissez-faire. Diff 1Page Ref 160 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 48) According to the full range of leadership model, which of the following leader behaviors will enable leaders to remind followers to perform above expectations and transcend their self-interest for the interest group of the organization? A) management by exception (active) B) contingent rewardC) individualized consideration D) manage ment by exception (passive) E) laissez-faire Answer C Explanation C) According to the full range of leadership model, leadership behaviors including laissez-faire, management by exception (active or passive), and contingent reward will not get employees to go above and beyond the call of duty. Only with the four styles of transformational leadershipindividualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influenceare leaders able to act followers to perform above expectations and transcend their self-interest for the sake of the organization.Diff 1Page Ref 160 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 49) Richard is a transactional leader who has just assigned a series of tasks to a sound projection aggroup. Which of the following is most likely to be true about the teams performance under Richards guidance? A) They will set new standards of productivity for the department, exceeding Richards expectations. B) They will meet the goals set for them but are unlikely to go beyond those goals. C) They will tend to be unclear about the roles assigned to each team member.D) They will be highly motivated by what they view as Richards heroic or extraordinary qualities. E) They will tend to put the interests of the company above individual self-interest. Answer B Explanation B) Transactional leaders set goals for their employees and define roles and expectations. Unlike transformational leaders, however, transactional leaders are unlikely to motivate their employees to exceed expectations or go beyond the call of duty. Diff 3Page Ref 160 AACSB Analytic Skills Quest. Category Application LO 4 50) Researchers are conducting a con of a company called Acme Corp. which they believe to be led by a transformational leader. Which of the following, if true, would most support the conclusion that Acmes leader is a transformational leader? A) Acmes top managers often disagree over defining the organizations goals. B) Acmes goals tend to b e very ambitious and to hold personal value for employees. C) Acme has a centralized decision-making structure. D) Acmes performance has held at average levels for the past three years. E) Acmes honorarium plans are designed to reward short-term results. Answer BExplanation B) In companies with transformational leaders, followers are more likely to pursue ambitious goals, agree on the strategic goals of the organization, and believe the goals they are pursuing are personally important. There is greater decentralization of responsibility, managers have more propensity to take risks, and stipend plans are geared toward long-term results. All these factors result in superior organizational performance. Diff 3Page Ref 160 AACSB Analytic Skills Quest. Category Application LO 4 51) Two companies, Roland Media and Go Corp, are both headed by ransformational leaders. However, Roland Media showed much greater profitability over a 5-year time period than did Go Corp. Which of the following best explains why Roland Media performed better than Go Corp under transformational leadership? A) Roland Medias leader goes through a complex bureaucratic structure, whereas Go Corps leader regularly interacts with the companys workforce to make decisions. B) Unlike Go Corps employees, Roland Medias employees dont readily give up decision-making authority. C) Roland Media is a small, privately held firm, whereas GoCorp is a large, complex public company. D) Roland Media is headquartered in a low power distance region, whereas Go Corp is headquartered in a country that is high in power distance. E) Roland Medias employees tend to be more highly individualistic than do Go Corps employees. Answer C Explanation C) Transformational leadership is most effective in small, privately held companies. It is less effective in complex organizations. Transformational leaders are more effective in improving group potency in teams higher in power distance and collectivism.They are less effective w hen leaders must deal with bureaucratic structures, when employees are highly individualistic, and when employees dont tardily give up decision-making authority. Diff 3Page Ref 162 AACSB Analytic Skills Quest. Category Application LO 4 52) Which of the following would best serve as evidence to support the conclusion that an individual is an authentic leader? A) The leader is cautious about entropy sharing and tends to provide updates only to top management. B) In business exchanges, the leader puts the companys bottom line before his or her ideals.C) The leader acts in the companys best interest as long as those interests dont conflict with his personal ambitions. D) The leader constantly questions his or her values. E) The leader inspires a great deal of trust in his or her followers. Answer E Explanation E) Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers consider them estimable p eople. The primary quality produced by authentic leadership, therefore, is trust. Authentic leaders share discipline, encourage open communication, and hold to their ideals. Diff 3Page Ref 163 Quest.Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 53) The concept of authentic leadership focuses on ________. A) the moral aspects of being a leader B) the unconventional behavior of the leader C) the readiness of followers D) the situational component of leadership E) the transactional aspect of leadership Answer A Explanation A) Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers consider them ethical people. This concept is a promising way to think about ethics and trust in leadership because it focuses on the moral aspects of being a leader.Diff 2Page Ref 163 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 54) The concept of socialise charismatic leadership seeks to integrate charismatic leadership with ___ _____ leadership. A) transformational B) production-oriented C) relational D) ethical E) transactional Answer D Explanation D) Scholars have tried to integrate ethical and charismatic leadership by advancing the idea of socialized charismatic leadershipleadership that conveys other centered (not self centered) values by leaders who model ethical conduct.Socialized charismatic leaders are able to bring employee values in line with their own values through their words and actions. Diff 1Page Ref 163 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 55) ________ is a psychological state that exists when you agree to make yourself vulnerable to another because you have positive expectations about how things are going to turn out. A) Consideration B) Trust C) authorisation D) Empathy E) Respect Answer B Explanation B) Trust is a psychological state that exists when you agree to make yourself vulnerable to another because you have positive expectations about how things are going to turn out.Even though you arent completely in control of the situation, you are willing to take a chance that the other person will come through for you. Diff 1Page Ref 164 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 56) All of the following are consequences of a relationship of trust between supervisors and employees, except that ________. A) trust facilitates information sharing B) trusting groups are more effective C) trust discourages taking risks D) trust enhances productivity E) company bottom-lines are positively influenced by trust Answer CExplanation C) Trust between supervisors and employees is related to a number of positive employment outcomes. Trust encourages taking risks, facilitates information sharing, and enhances productivity. Trusting groups are more effective. Diff 2Page Ref 165 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 4 57) Which of the following statements accurately describes the attribution theory of leadership? A) Leadership is solely an attribution people make about other individuals. B) Good leaders attribute their successes to their team or group members. C) Leadership qualities are attributions that are independent of performance.D) The achievement of group goals are rarely attributed to good leadership. E) Leadership is an attribute that individuals are born with. Answer A Explanation A) The attribution theory of leadership says leadership is merely an attribution people make about other individuals. Thus we attribute to leaders intelligence, outgoing personality, strong verbal skills, aggressiveness, understanding, and industriousness. At the organizational level, we tend to see leaders, rightly or wrongly, as responsible for extremely negative or extremely positive performance. Diff 2Page Ref 165 Quest.Category Concept/Definitional LO 5 58) The electric chair of a small Asian country was hailed as a conjurer and a genius when the nations economy burgeoned during his first term in office. However, when the currency and the stock-markets cras hed during his governments second term, he was censured as arrogant, elitist, and short-sighted. This scenario reflects the ________ theory of leadership. A) traits B) behavioral C) LMX D) substitutes E) attribution Answer E Explanation E) The attribution theory of leadership says leadership is merely an attribution people make about other individuals.Thus we attribute to leaders intelligence, outgoing personality, strong verbal skills, aggressiveness, understanding, and industriousness. At the organizational level, we tend to see leaders, rightly or wrongly, as responsible for extremely negative or extremely positive performance. Diff 3Page Ref 165 AACSB Analytic Skills Quest. Category Application LO 5 59) According to research, which of the following is true about demographic assumptions that are made about leaders? A) Leaders are likely to be assumed to be white. B) White leaders are no more likely to be rated effective than leaders from other racial groups.C) Teams incessantly prefer male leaders. D) Teams prefer female leaders when aggressively competing against other teams. E) Teams prefer male leaders when the competition is within teams and calls for improving positive relationships within the group. Answer A Explanation A) Respondents in a paper assumed a leader described with no identifying racial information was white at a rate beyond the base rate of white employees in a company. In scenarios where identical leadership situations are described but the leaders race is manipulated, white leaders are rated as more effective than leaders of other racial groups.Diff 2Page Ref 166 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 5 60) Zenith Technologies has a very flat organizational system with few managers. Instead, it has a rigid system of clear, formalized goals, clear procedures, and sticky work groups. In this case, the various components of the organizational system are playacting as ________ to formal leadership by replacing the support and ability o ffered by leaders. A) detriments B) traits C) attributes D) substitutes E) supplements Answer D Explanation D) One theory of leadership suggests that in many situations leaders actions are irrelevant.Experience and training are among the substitutes that can replace the need for a leaders support or ability to create structure. organizational characteristics such as explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, and cohesive work groups can also replace formal leadership. Diff 3Page Ref 166 AACSB Analytic Skills Quest. Category Application LO 5 61) Trust which is ground on a mutual understanding of each others intentions and appreciation of the others wants and desires is referred to as ________. A) substitute trustB) identification- ground trust C) attributional trust D) assumption-based trust E) socialized trust Answer B Explanation B) Identification-based trust, based on a mutual understanding of each others intentions and appreciation of the others wants and desires, i s specially difficult to achieve without face-to-face interaction. Its not unless clear whether its even possible for employees to identify with or trust leaders with whom they communicate only electronically. Diff 1Page Ref 167 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 5 2) Because he has an internationally based team, king of beasts and the team do most of their business communications via e-mail. Which of the following represents what is least likely to be true of king of beastss experience working with the team in an online environment? A) Leo relies heavily on his pen skills to communicate support and inspiration. B) Team members must be particularly adept at reading emotions in others messages C) Team members tend to have high levels of identification-based trust. D) Negotiations between team members sometimes stall due to lack of trust.E) Leo uses written communication to reinforce what he conveys to team members verbally. Answer C Explanation C) Online leaders confront uniq ue challenges, particularly around developing and maintaining trust. Identification-based trust, based on a mutual understanding of each others intentions and appreciation of the others wants and desires, is particularly difficult to achieve without face-to-face interaction. Leos team would be least likely to experience high levels of identification-based trust. Online negotiations might also be hindered because parties express lower levels of trust.Diff 2Page Ref 167 AACSB Analytic Skills Quest. Category Application LO 5 63) According to the ballock project, which of the following is true of the leadership style preferred by brazil nutian employees? A) leaders high on consideration B) leaders with a nonparticipative style C) leaders who take sovereign decisions D) leaders who act whole without engaging the group E) task oriented leaders Answer A Explanation A) Based on the values of Brazilian employees, leaders in Brazil would need to be team oriented, participative, and humane. Leaders high on consideration who emphasize participative decision making and have high LPC heaps would be best suited to managing employees in this culture. Brazilians do not prefer leaders who take self-governing decisions and act alone without engaging the group. Diff 2Page Ref 168 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 6 64) According to the earth project, which of the following is true of the leadership style preferred by employees in France? A) people-oriented leaders B) leaders with high LPC scores C) leaders with a participative decision-making styleD) leaders with high initiating structure E) relationship oriented leaders Answer D Explanation D) Compared to U. S. employees, the French have a more bureaucratic view of leaders and are less likely to expect them to be humane and considerate. A leader high on initiating structure (relatively task oriented) will do best and can make decisions in a relatively autocratic manner. A manager who scores high on consideration (peop le oriented) may find that style backfiring in France. Diff 2Page Ref 168 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 6 5) According to the GLOBE ask on the global implications of leadership, employees in this country are more likely to value team-oriented and participative leadership than U. S. employees. However, since it has a relatively high-power-distance culture, status differences between leaders and followers are expected. Therefore, the leader should ask employees for their opinions, try to minimize conflicts, but not be afraid to take charge and make the closing decision (after consulting team members). Identify this country. A) China B) Brazil C) Egypt D) FranceE) Sweden Answer C Explanation C) Employees in Egypt are more likely to value team-oriented and participative leadership than U. S. employees. However, Egypt is also a relatively high-power-distance culture, meaning status differences between leaders and followers are expected. So, a manager must be participative yet demonstrate his or her high level of status by asking employees for their opinions, trying to minimize conflicts, and yet not being afraid to take charge and making the final decision (after consulting team members). Diff 2Page Ref 168Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 6 66) According to the GLOBE project, which of the following is true of the leadership style preferred by employees in China? A) leaders who are team-oriented and humane B) leaders with high LPC scores C) leaders who take self-governing decisions D) leaders with a more or less participative style E) leaders who act alone without engaging the group Answer D Explanation D) According to the GLOBE study, Chinese culture emphasizes being polite, considerate, and unselfish, but it also has a high performance orientation.These two factors suggest consideration and initiating structure may both be important. Although Chinese culture is relatively participative compared to that of the coupled States, there are also sta tus differences between leaders and employees. This suggests a moderately participative style may work best. Diff 2Page Ref 168 Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 6 Leo supervises a global team of project members based in ten-fold countries. Maria is Brazilian Jean-Paul is French, Amit is Egyptian, and Xiang is Chinese. Leo is American and is based in the United States. 7) In the light on the findings of the GLOBE project, which team members can be expected to respond most favorably when Leo exhibits high levels of initiating structure? A) Jean-Paul and Xiang B) Amit and Xiang C) Maria and Jean-Paul D) Amit and Maria E) Xiang and Amit Answer A Explanation A) France and China are countries where individuals tend to value initiating structure. The French have a bureaucratic view of leaders and expect leaders to make decisions relatively autocratically. The Chinese have a high performance orientation that emphasizes status differences between employees.Leaders with high initiatin g structures therefore have better results in these countries. Diff 3Page Ref 168 AACSB Analytic Skills Objective Behavioral Theories Quest. Category Application LO 6 68) Which of the following team members would be least likely to respond favorably if Leo made project-related decisions independently, without consulting the team? A) Maria B) Jean-Paul C) Amit D) Xiang E) Maria and Jean-Paul Answer A Explanation A) Brazilians value participatory decision-making. Maria would thus be least likely to respond favorably to autocratic decision-making onLeos part. As one Brazilian manager remarked in a research study, We do not prefer leaders who take self-governing decisions and act alone without engaging the group. Thats part of who we are. Diff 3Page Ref 168 AACSB Analytic Skills Quest. Category Application LO 6 69) The team agrees that a large component of the project will be carried out at the Chinese headquarters, with Xiang responsible for leading that support team. Based on what th e GLOBE project concludes about Chinese culture, which of the following leader behaviors would be most effective?A) infrequent decision-making B) highly participatory decision-making C) autocratic decision-making D) decision-making without initiating structure E) moderately participatory decision-making Answer E Explanation E) Chinese culture emphasizes being polite, considerate, and unselfish, but it also has a high performance orientation. These two factors suggest consideration and initiating structure may both be important. Although Chinese culture is relatively participative compared to that of the United States, there are also status differences between leaders and employees.This suggests a moderately participative style may work best there. Diff 3Page Ref 168 AACSB Analytic Skills Quest. Category Application LO 6 70) In carrying out a transformational approach to overseeing the project, Leo strives to implement the universal elements of transformational leadership. He most li kely implements all of the following except ________. A) vision B) providing encouragement C) positiveness D) proactiveness E) silent leadership Answer E Explanation E) The silence of a leader is very virile in Japan, but not necessarily in other countries.Silent leadership is, therefore, not considered one of the university elements of transformational leadership. The elements are vision, foresight, providing encouragement, trustworthiness, dynamism, positiveness, and proactiveness. Diff 1Page Ref 168 AACSB Analytic Skills Quest. Category Application LO 6 71) The term leadership is synonymous with management. Answer FALSE Explanation Although often used interchangeably, the terms leadership and management have two different meanings. John Kotter of the Harvard Business School argues that management is the ability to wangle with complexity.Leadership, by contrast, is defined as the ability to cope with change. Diff 1Page Ref 150 Objective Management and Leadership Quest. Category Concept/Definitional LO 1 72) Nonsanctioned leadership is usually less important than formal influence. Answer FALSE Explanation Nonsanctioned leadershipthe ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organizationis often as important or more important than formal

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