Wednesday, March 6, 2019


I have read and understood The University of Sydney Academic swindling and Plagiarism in Course cypher Policy 2012 . I understand that failure to conform to with the Academic Dishonesty and Plagiarism in Coursework Policy tail end organize to the University commencing proceedings against me for potential student misconduct under Chapter 8 of the University of Sydney By-Law 1999 (as amended). 4. This work is substantially my sustain, and to the extent that both office of this work is not my own I have indicated that it is not my own by acknowledging the source of that part or those parts of the work. . The assessment has not been submitted previously for assessment in this or any other unit, or another institution. . I note that the assessor of this concession may, for the purpose of assessing this assignment may Reproduce this assignment and provide a written matter to another member of the Faculty of health Sciences and/or Use similarity detection softw be (which may thu sly retain a copy of the assignment on its database for the purpose of future day plagiarism checking). 7. I have retained a duplicate copy of the assignment.Please type in your name here to acknowledge this declaration glueyness Luau Now proceed to page 2 to begin your assignment. This template depart become your assignment file. OFFICE USE ONLY Question 1 Positivistic Theory (Biological and Psychological Theory) The positively charged progress shot to lamentableity introduced the bringing close together of empirically inquirying abhorrence to understand the causes of vileity, and thus the solutions to solving it. Positivism is establish in logic, and is the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomena with science (Blackmore, 1972).The opening assumes that sorrys atomic number 18 fundagenially different from non-criminals either biologically (Limbos), psychologically (Freud), kindly (Park, Druthers) or in some combination of them all, ND thus aim to sort plu rality according to these differences (Boom, 2010). The approach ultimately replaced the rational man with the criminal type (Killing, 1997). The cessation of Enlightenment in the 18th century enforced benignant progression, and as such(prenominal), saw Positivism gain popularity.It was a move from get up conclude to rationalism, from superstition to science, with the emergence of intellectuals with philosophies to understand and improve the world (Porter, 2001). Since this time, the positivist approach has guided policymaking throughout the criminal conscionableice system. Positivism focused on specifically tailored treatment to go the needs of offenders (Treadwell, 2006). Positivists dismiss any form of turn out that does not have an empirical basis, such as religion, magic, philosophy and tradition (Blackmore, 1972).Those that cannot be objectively experienced atomic number 18 rejected, in so that positivists can explain criminal behavior through that which can only be ob served or measured (Boom, 2010). Biological positivists depend at observables such as anatomical abnormalities, identifiable brokertic of gene conformations, and bodily actions where as psychological positivists will look at biological observables, but will add behavioral factors, for instance, child rearing practices and wit abnormalities that causes identifiable behavior outcomes.Positivism views criminals as certain kinds of human beings who are governed by natural phenomena, which have been set in place by an outer factor that is out of their control. It follows that criminals do not make decisions regarding their criminal behavior, and thus, the abstract view of humans being rational were discarded. Biological theories sought to checker a biological defect inside individuals that caused a predisposition towards criminal behavior.Limbos was one of the most influential early biological thinkers and positivist theorists, and was influenced by phrenology in his theory. Phreno logy is the concept that the shape of your skull defines your character. Through his studies, Limbos identify born criminals to be dangerous evolutionary throwbacks (Limbos, 2006). He identified physical features of criminals, which supported this notion, as they echoed biological features of an ape. Among others, Limbos classified several criminal characteristics through studying cadavers of penalize criminals.Features such as smaller and more deformed skulls, canine teeth, stick out ears, excessive hairiness and unusually long arms were said to be common features in criminals (Limbos, 2006). Generally, biological positivists search for biological causes generally in genetic inheritance. The chromosome pairing of an ordinary female is XX, and for a male, XX. However, there are naturally occurring variations, for example the pairing EX. of chromosomes, known as the Skillfulnesss Syndrome (Taylor, Walton and Young, 1973).This theory claimed that good deal with an unneeded X chromo some were more likely to omit iniquitys and could be identified by their biological and physical features, such as lacking nervus facialis air, round bodies and were frequently infertile. However, further investigation into this theory oriented that abnormal people containing an extra Y chromosome showed signs of slight mental deficiency. On this assumption, Price undertook chromosome counts on all available male patients in a special credentials institution in Scotland and found that X males tended to be severe psychopaths.The extra Y chromosome, therefore, appeared to be positively linked to increased eight and psychopaths. In essence, biological positivists were attempting to be able to identify criminals by looking at them. Psychological profitableness focuses on aggression, psychopathology and violence when studying crime (Storefront, 1990). It is based in the field of psychometrics that seeks to measure psychological and mental differences between criminals and non- crimi nals.One of the most famous theories in this field is Sigmund Freuds theory of the structures of the mind, used to explain the influence of the unconscious over conscious thoughts, feelings, and behavior. The theory divides itself into the unconscious id, the ego, and the superego (Martin, 2007). Further, Wilson and Hermistons personality study and crime concluded that crime is a rational act of defective personality (Treadwell, 2006). Furthermore, psychologically based theories in criminology have focused on deficient cognitions as causes of crimes.Hostels and Sameness (2004) all-inclusive this notion by their study of male offenders from a variety of backgrounds, which were split up into an experimental group and compared to a control group of normal convicted prisoners. The two theorists leglike that a common factor in shaping the thinking pattern of criminals was denial of responsibility. They concluded that these thinking errors were an aspect of criminal thinking patterns, and unquestionable a cognitive treatment programmer to cure these errors.Druthers held the belief that societies are remote to the individuals who compose them (Schemas, 1994), and from this, formulated his notion of a companionable fact. A social fact is every demeanor of acting, fixed or not, capable of physical exertion on the individual an external constraint or again, every way of acting which is general wrought a given society, while at the same time existing in its own right separate of its individual manifestations. Druthers was the pioneer of early positivist Social interrogation with his famous study of suicide.This was so others would be able to develop evidence for ideas on human behavior rather than unsubstantiated theories. The use of positivism in criminology aims to identify the problem and treat it, and thus control crime and criminality. In more late times, Rained conducted a study in 1998 on the brains of murderers as compared to a control group using PET scans. In the case of those who committed impulsive murders, Rained concluded that the emotional impulsive murderers are less able to regulate and control aggressive impulses generated from subtropical structures out-of-pocket to deficient preferential regulation (Rafter, 2008).Despite conclusions drawn from the gallery in criminology, it was claimed that actually little of modern-day psychology can be described as positivistic (McGuire, 2004) as it is not directly observable, and thus to associate it with Positivism is fallacious. Theorists such as Boom criticized Positivism for its flawed belief in roomie consensus (Boom, 2010), as well as Reid, who believed that positivism was a dualistic delusion (Reid, 1982).As the approach advocates two distinct groups of criminals and non-criminals whom are influenced by biological, psychological and social factors, other elements such as ones culture was dismissed in the theory. In regards to the positivist approach to Skillfulnesss Sy ndrome, it was found out through further research that criminals had normal chromosomes and that non-criminals also had abnormal chromosomes, thus disproving the black and flannel divergence of Iranians being the only people with irregular genetic material.Nonetheless, the Positivist movement has played a vital role in shaping the criminal Justice system. Regardless of its ignorant faults in its biomedical and psychological aspects, the approach has influenced Western criminal codes and has impacted the modifications made of the classical model. Rushers, a modern day psychologist, bases his research on the Positivist theory. His book, Race, Evolution and Behavior (1995) attempts to show that East Asian people and their descendants average a large brain size, greater intelligence, and slower rates of maturation than o Europeans and their descendants.The contributions of the positivist school have combined with the classical theory of criminology to shape the contemporary criminal Justice system. The punishment of a criminal must fit the crime (Siegel, 2010), as in reality, victims and perpetrators are often the same people, Just swapping roles in different situations (Maguire, 1996). Positivism was formulated on the intention of obtaining facts somewhat human behavior, but as human existence is a convoluted and volatile phenomenon, any attempt to classify it in black and white falls short.Aiming to obtain objective fact is important in influencing criminal legislations, and can offer solutions to committed crimes. However, relying solely on objectivity is impossible, and subjectiveness must be accepted as an inherent part of human nature as any claim of pure objectivity is barely fictitious (Reid, 1982).

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